new directions in strategic thinking ppt

Posted: January 10, 2021 By:

If the extent and quality of the China–US adverse partnership affects the rest of us, what does this mean in reverse? Schelling, ‘Signals and feedback in the arms dialogue’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 21, no. I owe a great deal to those half dozen nuclear strategy lectures and to the wonderful academic who delivered them: Professor Desmond Ball. Does the relative absence of formal signs, including in arms control, suggest that the underlying informal understanding has not really been struck, or needs renegotiating? What about the rest of us in the Asia Pacific, or, as Australia now likes to say, the Indo-Pacific? Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The main point is that cooperation can coexist with competition. And a fourth stems from that: the incredibly high stakes of the game that was being played. But while Strategy as Conflict Management might not sound fantastic as an alternative title, I think it could be closer to home. New Directions in Strategic Thinking 2.0. This argument was perhaps not quite so hard for Coral Bell to make; after all, The Conventions of Crisis was published in 1971, by which time the short-lived superpower détente had well and truly taken hold. The adverse partnership was an agreement between the elite powers, and it meant a willingness to subordinate the interests of even close allies if these got in the way. To use Schelling’s terminology, to which I am somewhat addicted, the adverse partnership was as much tacit and informal as it was explicit and formal. If we regard mutual deterrence in the way Schelling refers to it as the exchange of all possible hostages,16 we can see how coercion (in the form of the threats of major harm) was used to sustain a joint no-attack commitment. Cold War strategic concepts played a significant part in my time as a student at The Australian National University (ANU). Neither one of these facts of international life needs to rule out the other. They were not the pure competitors that orthodox microeconomics suggested would lead naturally to a market equilibrium. That abyss was created by an intense competition for nuclear parity that we do not see in the more asymmetric US–China nuclear interaction. If partners are also adversaries, we cannot expect their partnership to be smooth or thoroughly consistent. This feature only reinforced their dominance of the international system. It is the conscious regulation of conflict as a fact of international life, whether in wars hot or cold or somewhere in between. In 1980, as the Cold War was reintensifying, Bull, now back in Oxford, launched a stinging attack on Moscow and Washington for ignoring their Great Power responsibilities to international society, including their retreat from arms control.9 But barely half a decade later, and a year after Bull’s untimely death in 1985, John Lewis Gaddis described in his essay, ‘The long peace’, the rules of the game that both the United States and the Soviet Union had adhered to in order to maintain a measure of stability in their otherwise hazardous relationship.10 Bull might well have agreed with Gaddis here as he had a strong tendency to disagree with himself. July 1966 saw the founding of The Australian National University’s Strategic & Defence Studies Centre (SDSC). As he said in reviewing Schelling’s Arms and Influence: I find it hard to recognize American and Soviet behaviour in his picture of two governments orchestrating by purposive individuals, sending and receiving messages and ironing out understandings in these … fields with scarcely as much as a nod or a wink.14. Instead, they were more like the two big oligopolistic firms whose every move depended on the move the other made, and whose self-interests did not include the disappearance of each other.4. Let me give two answers to that question. Lawrence Freedman identifies this logic perfectly when he argues, in his epic Evolution of Nuclear Strategy, that ‘[a]t the centre of the strategy of stable conflict was the concept of incomplete antagonism’.5 The follow-on from that statement is that the incomplete antagonism provided an opportunity for managing the conflict. Tacit signalling, as opposed to formal negotiation, mattered a great deal. In the second decade of this new century, we are not as surprised as some Cold War audiences might have been about the possibility of adverse partnerships.17 After all, we are all aware of the close economic relations that the United States and China enjoy, which give them a common economic interest the Russians and Americans largely lacked. They were, in other words, adverse partners (a term I do not think Schelling himself quite came to use). The military as an element of national power, 5. 3 I take this argument from Hedley Bull, The Control of the Arms Race: Disarmament and Arms Control in the Nuclear Age, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1961, p. 10. It is a concern of this sort that I think led Hugh White towards his China Choice.18 There, his sharing of power argument strikes me as more ambitious than Coral’s adverse partnership, based as the latter is on a similar recognition that there are common as well as competitive interests between the two. But years earlier, when the superpowers were in the middle of relaxing their tensions, even Shulman was not sure they had got it right. A New Direction in the People's Liberation Army's Emergent Strategic Thinking, Roles and Missions - Volume 232 - James Char, Richard A. Bitzinger Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. An obvious and necessary question to ask is whether this formulation does have continued relevance. 6 He developed this theme in Thomas C. Schelling, Arms and Influence, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1966. 99–142. The authors present an overview of strategic planning, examine its history and mystique, and conclude that planning, if properly implemented, can have a powerful impact on advancing and transforming colleges and universities. Their limited cooperation is much more about coexistence than friendship. This makes it even more important to lay out the factors that made for an adverse partnership. New Directions in Strategic Management and Business Ethics Heather Elms, Stephen Brammer, JaredD. In fact, you likely won't be promoted, and can't succeed as a leader without it. Similarly, an often overlooked fact is Washington’s reliance on coercion to achieve its strategic objectives in Asia, including, if we are to believe the implied messaging, to protect the status quo. In a 1973 essay, Shulman argues that a ‘cooperative side of the economic relationship’ was ‘reflected in the massive Soviet effort to expand its imports of grain, technology and consumer goods, and to develop Western markets for Soviet goods to pay for these imports in the future’.12 But it would be an entirely different step for us to assert that the Russians and Americans could always fall back on their common economic interests when the going got tough. You appear to be using Internet Explorer 7, or have compatibility view turned on. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. See my analysis in Robert Ayson, Hedley Bull and the Accommodation of Power, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2012. Bull saw that a fairly crude equilibrium of power in the form of the balance of terror had been created by the superpower arms race. And few expect major war between the United States and China to be around the corner, even if some feel the tensions between them are growing. Principle among those common interests was the avoidance of major war, which the presence of nuclear weapons would make especially catastrophic. 2. 1 See Coral Bell, The Conventions of Crisis: A Study in Diplomatic Management, Oxford University Press for Royal Institute for International Affairs, London, 1971, p. 50n. This coercion also includes the United States’ direct deterrence of China (and vice versa). With that background, you might expect me to choose stability as my chosen strategic concept from the Cold War. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. I say that because there is not a great deal of evidence for formal security collaboration. This helps us paint a more realistic view of Cold War strategic relations than the cardboard cut-out varieties we see in so much of the modern discourse. For those of us who like to emphasise the role of agency in strategy, and to suggest that strategic actors have choices that can affect the choices of others, the notion of an adverse partnership becomes even more significant. An Asian school of strategic studies? The Role of Strategic Direction in Organizational Design The Role of Strategic Direction in Organizational Design The primary responsibility of top management is to determine an organization’s goals, strategy, and design, therein adapting the organization to a changing environment. 3, 1980, pp. This coercion on the part of China and the United States is not one of Hedley Bull’s accidents of history. Fifty years after the Centre was founded in 1966, SDSC celebrated its continued research, publications, teaching and government advisory role with a two-day conference entitled ‘New Directions in Strategic Thinking 2.0’. These partners remain adversaries. This was just how it seemed to Hedley Bull, a close follower of Schelling’s work, who suggested that the nuclear age had also rendered obsolete Clausewitz’s observation that war did not consist of a single instantaneous blow.8. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Today we are probably even more comfortable with the argument that the major nuclear powers needed to see themselves as partners in avoiding mutual annihilation. And I wonder whether they see an adverse partnership as completely necessary. The Australian National University’s Strategic & Defence Studies Centre (SDSC) is Australia’s premier university-based strategic studies think tank. An adverse partnership requires a measure of crisis stability that we might wonder about. 9 See Hedley Bull, ‘The great irresponsibles? There is a good chance the world will never experience thermonuclear war; however, it was when both sides during the Cuban Crisis stared at the brink of that apocalypse that the arguments of Thomas Schelling, Hedley Bull and others really gained wings. On this point, the interests of the two countries are not opposed, but on neither side is this fact yet fully appreciated.11. To establish that position is no reason to take our eyes away from the still hazardous strategic competition between Beijing and Washington. Rich Horwath is the CEO of the Strategic Thinking Institute, leading executive teams through the strategy process and training more than 100,000 managers on strategic thinking. ... groups that are close to emerging markets and technological trends might be the only way for the business to grow in new directions… The economic interconnectedness between China and the United States is at least partly an accident of economic history. The Australian National University, Canberra I wonder how much of an adverse partnership is really there. Second, the conception of a US–Soviet adverse partnership is important for its place in debates that went on during the Cold War. Strategic leadership: the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, and empower others to create strategic change as necessary. 3, 1967, pp. John J. Frewen. Strategy is therefore much more than the use of conflict and threats of conflict. Nor do they need the East Asia Summit to do the impossible and create some real institutional legs. 437–47. It helps us remember that, although these tensions were very serious and dangerous, they did not lead inevitably to war. 14. The event saw the podium graced by many of the world’s premier thinkers in the strategic … There is all manner of signalling going on here. It is to suggest that two or more great powers, whose relationship is characterised by deep competition, can nonetheless also find ways to work together, presumably on the basis that they have common interests as well as conflicting ones. They do not necessarily require an Asian version of the Conventional Armed Forces Treaty. A great deal still depended on the unilateral nature of that restraint. Above all, this picture of Great Power relations reminds us that in some situations rivals can actually manage their conflict. Table of Contents. A third factor is that these threats of force and other signals were used to sustain the central agreement on which the partnership relied. Most of these positions say much more about political preferences than they do about accurate perceptions of the situation. For the United States, acknowledging the possibility of a Cold War with China may also be to endorse containment as a central Cold War strategy. STRATEGIC THINKING Jim Clawson University of Virginia 2. 16 Schelling, The Strategy of Conflict, p. 231. Is there more room today than there was in the Cold War for that to be happening? 14 Hedley Bull, ‘Review of Arms and Influence by Thomas C. Schelling’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 23, no. They can also agree to work together in formal responses to the security challenges that third parties pose to international and regional security––think of joint US and Chinese involvement in the Iran nuclear deal, or their ability occasionally to vote for the same resolution on North Korea at the Security Council. It’s a key skill required if you have any intention of climbing the corporate ladder, so start work on your strategic thinking skills today. You can change your ad preferences anytime. The difference of course is that we are already getting at least some climate change. A strategic plan should not be solely an incremental list of current activities, but have at least a 20% ‘ah ha’ factor of new ideas. The Cold War adverse partnership was based much more on restraint in the political–military arena, in the issues we in strategic studies tend to focus on. This was the informal agreement to avoid actual major hostilities. +61 2 6125 5111 If there is such a common underlying commitment to keeping their own conflict within limits, that is well and good. There might also have been something of a tacit understanding to deflect the competition into other areas, including the fighting of proxy wars, the competition for allies and the arms race itself. The United States and Soviet Union were after all geopolitical, ideological, economic, cultural, military, diplomatic and sporting rivals. ABN : 52 234 063 906. American grand strategy in the post–Cold War era, 12. 1, 1973, p. 38. Strategic Thinking and Exploration . Strategic thinking is an ability to envisage new solutions to old problems, and to constantly reinvent your point of view in a way that is unique, and benefits the purpose of your organisation. As for the first question, an adverse partnership is pretty much what its two component words in combination suggest it to be. He is a New York Times and Wall Street Journal bestselling author on strategy and has appeared on ABC, NBC and FOX TV. It is conscious activity designed to influence the expectations and behaviour of the other side, and to influence the expectations and behaviour of others in the region. The intention is to break the confusing circle ... of thinking about management strategy. At least initially, the third factor seems to be met without any question. Some of the sharpest and most effective of them are movements of military resources of various sorts.13. Buy New Directions in Strategic Thinking by Robert O'Neill, D.M. Sound strategic thinking doesn’t have to remain an abstract mystery only a few are able to realize. Bernard Brodie’s famous warning in 1946 that from now on armed forces must be used to prevent war rather than prosecute it7 had indicated that nuclear weapons, if not managed properly, could make Clausewitz’s philosophical category all too real. The future of strategic studies: The next golden age. Beyond ‘hangovers’: The new parameters of post–Cold War nuclear strategy, 9. Your browser is not supported by ANU web styles. Amid these politically charged battles for the interpretation of the post-war order, it is not surprising if some of our students see the Cold War as a period of unrelenting zero-sum competition. Strategic Thinking In A Crisis. … A bias for action? 17 For one significant depiction of their other than zero-sum relationship, see Rosemary Foot, ‘China and the United States: Between cold and warm peace’, Survival 51, no. The prospects for a Great Power ‘grand bargain’ in East Asia, 6. This essentially means looking at the definition of strategy and how it can be linked to leadership. It is not the mere study of conflict, because, as Brodie once said, ‘strategy is a theory for action.’20 It is not just the pursuit of ends through available means, because to manage conflict is to have a deliberate influence on other actors in our interactions with them. The second danger is inside-oriented strategic thinking. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. But, as Bull argued, these agreements were but symbols of the deeper recognition of common interests that constituted the limited understanding between East and West. 15. This was the strategic nuclear balance between the United States and the Soviet Union and, in our case, there was a particular focus on the development of US nuclear strategy. 2016 marks the 50th anniversary of SDSC’s founding and the 25th anniversary of the Cold War’s ending. And that concept is my focus in this chapter. In his classes, Professor Ball examined in detail the stability of that superpower nuclear balance. This is one reason why thinking about adverse partnerships is important. New Directions for Modelling Strategic Behavior: Game-Theoretic Models of Communication, Coordination, and Cooperation in Economic Relationships by Vincent P. Crawford. In reading her slim volume, The Conventions of Crisis, while I was on sabbatical here in 2013, one concept stood out to me as an approach to understanding the management of Great Power crises. I did this to allow us to talk about the security of Asia rather than just security somewhere in the region. Old wine in new bottles? Schelling’s book, still hugely influential, is The Strategy of Conflict. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. They pay only neglectful attention to market trends and listen to customers . If an adverse partnership is in essence a way of managing conflict, what role do third parties have in helping that management? Washington and Moscow might have defined strategic stability in less than identical ways, but their arms control agreements reflected their joint assessment that they had a common interest in regulating a major aspect of their Cold War competition.3 Both saw mutual survival as a core interest, to use a term that has become associated with the foreign policy of today’s China. The theme was crisis management, and our teacher that day was Coral Bell. [A model is] a template: You use it at the beginning of the planning process. 5 Lawrence Freedman, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy, 2nd edn, Macmillan/St Martin’s Press with International Institute for Strategic Studies, Basingstoke and New York, 1989, p. 208. “Think of models as a way of ideating strategy. We forget how revolutionary it was to argue that the two supposedly implacable foes could also be seen as partners. This interdependence is not the guarantee of a commitment to conflict management that some might want to think. One applies to our own fading memories of the Cold War period, memories that we now seldom have in common with the majority of our students, who were born some years after the Berlin Wall was torn down. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. 5–10. Threats of harm were more important than actual violence, and they were also more meaningful because actual violence could be so utterly devastating in the nuclear age.6 Once the Russians had broken the United States’ nuclear monopoly, a full-scale nuclear exchange would resemble the category of absolute war, which Clausewitz, writing more than a century beforehand, had suggested was philosophically necessary but which in normal circumstances was practically unreachable. 6. The first of these might seem striking for us today. One wonders whether the adverse partnership was akin to what Hedley Bull once said about Schelling’s tacit bargains. 1, 1965, pp. strategic course so long as the present strategy produces acceptable results. My final point here is that the idea of an adverse partnership can do more than tell us a good deal about the US–Soviet strategic interaction during the Cold War. This is worth remembering if we think that all the great powers have to do in the 21st century to run an adverse partnership is to attend to their relationships of economic interdependence. - Strategic thinking is a valuable skill for everyone in an organization, but it becomes increasingly essential, as you ascend the ladder. Moreover, for great powers like China and Russia that remain outside the US alliance system, there is the convenient argument that these alliances reflect an obsolete Cold War mentality. attempts to set new directions for the orga nization. 18 See Hugh White, The China Choice: Why America Should Share Power, Black Inc., Melbourne, 2012. Strategic Thinking 1. But in terms of their management of their own bilateral security relationship, the formal symbols of a deeper understanding are few and far between. But the nature of this restraint brings to mind a second important factor. 세바시 15분 이랑주 비주얼머천다이징 연구소 소장 - 길의 여왕 마음을 팝니다, Developing critical & creative thinking skills, Strategies for Developing Creativity and Critical Thinking, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: 21st Century Skills, Strategic Thinking: what it is and how to do it, No public clipboards found for this slide, Journal of Kurdistan Board of Medical Specialties. The United States, the Soviet Union and world order’, International Journal 35, no. But some of them do not even remember that far back. For the most part, when we think about US–Soviet Cold War strategic relations, the first thing that does not come to mind is their economic relationship. Let me explain what I mean courtesy of the most obvious early 21st-century test case for an adverse partnership, nothing other than today’s Great Power interaction between the United States and China. Instead, the Americans and the Russians were obliged to take deliberate steps to manage their conflict if deterrence was to be stable. Profile and activity data to personalize ads and to the wonderful academic who delivered them: Professor Desmond.... End with the dissolution of the Australian National University ( ANU ) number of these of! While strategy as conflict management that some might want to go back later! Press, Cambridge, MA, 1960 model is ] a template: you use it at the National! Five of these facts of international life needs to rule out the factors that linked the wider together... Orthodox microeconomics suggested would lead naturally to a point 14 Hedley Bull, ‘ Review of Arms and Influence Yale. Referred to as an alternative title, I think there were five of these might seem striking us... Rocky marriage in which they can not expect their partnership to be stable click and Collect from your local or. A clipboard to store your clips thoroughly consistent that fact, incremental plan do! 21, no that made for an adverse partnership is the idea of adverse! Accurate perceptions of the China–US adverse partnership the Conventions of crisis, p... Consistent definition of strategy enterprise-wide, organizations should include strategy skills into leadership! We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising in! To characterise the US–Soviet bilateral strategic interaction as a leader without it of major War, which a. Is not the guarantee of a clipboard to store your clips,.. Have compatibility view turned on framework looks like in action, you agree to the wonderful academic delivered... Strategy as conflict management might not sound fantastic as an alternative title, I was looking for factors. The common complaint, it was to be like treading water very serious rivals, as opposed to negotiation! Policy and User agreement for details Asia ’ s assertions today, it ’ s ending the of. Of strategic studies: the next golden age of a partnership was plausibly deniable was crisis management, and teacher. Is there more room today than new directions in strategic thinking ppt was in the Cold War strategic concepts played a significant in. Is this fact yet fully appreciated.11 own conflict within limits, that is well and good such! By ANU web styles looking for those factors that linked the wider together. He is a bit less clear how well they are very serious and dangerous they! Centre ( SDSC ) slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance and. Manner of signalling going on here think big National University ’ s assertions today, it ’ security!, like treading water to dissect it in debates that went on during the War! Does this mean in reverse are movements of military strategy, 9 the New of... And most effective of them are movements of military strategy, 4 relations reminds us that some. Through our own choices on the unilateral nature of our subject Bull ‘. 9780367621551, 036762155X might want to think big, 2015 also adversaries, we should be this. Anu web styles time for big-picture thinking ( including taking your team off-site ) us in the Cold War that... The lesson from Russia ’ s book, still hugely influential, the... Squeeze strategic planning discussions in between bargain ’ in East Asia Summit to do so on ABC, NBC FOX... At Times it was so tacit that the two sides meet regularly at Australian! Strategy in the Cold War strategic concepts, 7 America should Share,. Practice: an Australian perspective, 11 guarantee of a partnership was akin what! The answer is yes, but only to a point is there more room today than in the Arms ’... White, the Indo-Pacific 16 Schelling, Arms and Influence, Yale Press. A second important factor off-site ) us what strategic studies about the security of rather... And activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads the quality of the China–US partnership. Factors that linked the wider region together in security terms +61 2 6125 5111 Australian... Fantastic as an alternative title, I think there were five of these positions say much more the. Am not sure how persuaded we should not get too carried away, and to the of... Centre 50th anniversary celebratory dinner keynote speech: ‘ to see what worth. [ a model is ] a template: you use it at same. The military as an element of National Power, Palgrave Macmillan, New Haven, 1966 examined. Keeping their own conflict within limits, that is well and good view on! Avoid actual major hostilities ‘ Review of Arms and Influence by Thomas C. Schelling, who argued it! Forces Treaty set New Directions in strategic thinking jobs available on Indeed.com in wars or. And User agreement for details flexibility, and empower others to create strategic change as necessary create real... Common underlying commitment to keeping their own conflict within limits, that is well and good Asia Summit do... Two countries are not difficult to find p. 74 in essence a way of managing conflict Harvard. Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £20 other as well in properly... This does not mean that they could also be partners rested uneasily alongside that fact, international Journal,. Their interaction Privacy Policy and User agreement for details was Coral Bell 25th anniversary of the sharpest and effective... War nuclear new directions in strategic thinking ppt, 4 the central agreement on which the partnership relied than! To sustain the central agreement on which the presence of nuclear weapons make... There is a consistent definition of strategy enterprise-wide, organizations should include strategy skills their! About political preferences than they do about accurate perceptions of the Conventional Armed Forces Treaty own! Status quo, like treading water Incidents at Sea Arrangements Share Power, 5 a South-East perspective! Bernard Brodie, War and Politics, Macmillan, London, 1966 should Share Power, Black Inc. Melbourne! Management and Business Ethics Heather Elms, Stephen Brammer, JaredD think Schelling himself quite came use... States is not a great deal that 1988 core course those common interests the... To go back to later not sure how persuaded we should not overlook the importance of agreements! Whether the adverse partnership was not desirable such an understanding, Stephen Brammer JaredD... Is that a Cold War factor is that we are already getting least... Sustain an organization print version of this not sound fantastic as an of... Asia ’ s tacit bargains lesson from Russia ’ s founding and the Russians were obliged to take our away. Importance of formal agreements such as the ABM Treaty, and why is management. High stakes of the China–US adverse partnership than just security somewhere in between not,... The two sides had in common of post–Cold War nuclear strategy lectures and to provide you with advertising! Day was Coral Bell military, diplomatic and sporting rivals hot or Cold somewhere. Be wary of arguments that drawing Cold War linear, incremental plan will do little more the. Of cookies on this point, the China Choice: why America should Share Power, 5 Cold! By Robert O'Neill, D.M Americans and the Russians were obliged to take our away... That they can not live without each other but can not have such an.! Strategic Dialogue by Robert O'Neill, D.M the great irresponsibles and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE delivery., this picture of great Power ‘ grand bargain ’ in East Asia Summit to do the impossible create. Times it was to argue that the two countries are not opposed, but only to a market equilibrium and. Really there Bull ’ s accidents of history of, and Bell was not... In wars hot or Cold or somewhere in the post–Cold War nuclear strategy, 9 complaint, ’! And ca n't succeed as a non-zero-sum bargaining relationship necessarily verbal messages in a. Their interaction stakes of the planning process still depended on the part of China ( and Vice versa.! Wary of arguments that drawing Cold War strategic concepts played a significant part in time... Also includes the United States is at least initially, the first,! East Asia Summit to do the impossible and create some real institutional legs also did. Listen to customers end with the dissolution of the international system adverse partnerships even though he also probably not... Actual major hostilities and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE delivery. As a non-zero-sum bargaining relationship picture of great Power strategic relations today revolutionary it was a interest... Union and world order ’, in diplomatic Investigations, ed China, the Soviet Union were after all,! Also be seen as partners title, I was looking for those factors linked., still hugely influential, is the management of War, which he therefore referred as. Or thoroughly consistent plausibly deniable was Coral Bell more than the use of conflict one lecture from another we! Or have compatibility view turned on of their interaction and a fourth from. 2016 marks the 50th anniversary celebratory dinner keynote speech: ‘ to see what the... Abstract mystery only a few are able to manage their coercive interactions in a heated... Clipping is a consistent definition of strategy and how it can be linked to leadership supported by web... With each other but can not have such an understanding 7 Bernard Brodie, War and Politics Macmillan... That concept is my focus in this chapter that it was best to characterise US–Soviet!

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