1 corinthians 14 34-35 interpolation

Posted: January 10, 2021 By:

In fact, God uses feminine metaphors to describe his character, and Jesus uses feminine examples to explain God’s actions. I see nothing in his character or behaviour that isn’t relevant to me because I’m female. At a time when physical strength was necessary for survival, men had more power and authority, and they might be more aware of events (good or bad) happening outside of the home than his wife whose primary role was to have children and care for them. I didn’t think that would work! We can not love an it. The next phrase clearly refers to childbirth: “in pains (from lupē) you will give birth to children”. Hi Marg! Moreover, Payne’s date for the proposed interpolation strains credulity.”. FINDING YOUR ARTICLES HELPFUL AS MY THESIS IS ON WHY WOMEN PREACHING IS AN ISSUE IN ZAMBIA IN THE SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH, KINDLY SHARE IF YOU HAVE BOOK THAT CAN BE HELFUL TO ME. It allows women to make vows. “While Paul allows women to speak and give prophesies in the church meeting, he does not allow them to speak up and give evaluations or critiques of the prophesies that have been given, for this would be a ruling or governing function with respect to the whole church. Jesus is my role model, and I’m female. But if a wife did ask her husband a question during a meeting and he didn’t know the answer, that would be super awkward. The only person ever, that I’ve found complete peace, respect, and rest in is Jesus. To put it in the words of Dennis Preager, “Any uncomfortability you feel from God being masculine, will be incomparable to the pain we will all feel if little boys are not grown into good men.” 6:2). This also shows there were not rules about speaking in tongues without interpretation outside of church even if others are around, showing that the requirements of 1 Corinthians 14:26-40 are more limited in scope. The Chiasm in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 Most women who have had good labours, like me, don’t talk about it because of some women’s horror stories. I like this statement from the author Kirk MacGregor: “Payne’s defense of the interpolation hypothesis is, in the end, based on speculation—albeit carefully considered speculation. .” (I must admit I have trouble taking this at face value.) ” [More on Chloe here.]. Bart D. Ehrman, in Forged, page 245, suggests that the apostle Paul was not really the author of this passage, meaning that it could be a later interpolation inserted into his epistle.First of all, he says that immediately before these verses, Paul is talking about prophecy in the church, then immediately afterwards he is once again talking about prophecy. I can testify, people are the ones who wanted women to bury their talents and just settle for less than best, God never wanted that! B. N. Fisk. I couldn’t imagine how many nasty comments you get on a daily basis. Apart from Jesus, God is not male. [21] Some manuscripts, include humōn (“your”) after the Greek word for women/wives. However, I was wondering if you have any insights on an argument I heard recently. 34 Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience as also saith the law. Catherine Clark Kroeger (2002:646) writes, “‘Chloe’s people’ probably indicates a worshipping community with a female leader.” [More on Chloe here. I can’t believe in a god that lets others suffer in eternal torment, I can’t believe in religions that so obviously hurt women and cast aside people who disbelieve. save. Thus, even though the distigmai in Codex Vaticanus may either add credibility to the originality of a passage, as in the case of John 7:53-8:11, or cast doubt on the originality of a passage, as in the case of 1 Cor 14:34-35, their overall impact is to affirm the reliability of the transmission of the NT text. It will show that 1 Cor 14:34-35 has all the standard hallmarks of an interpolation. Sadly, that’s how society worked back then. And then love. There were no church buildings for the first 200 years of the new Christian movement. The social dynamic of honour-shame which was pervasive in the ancient world is also a theme in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16. This shouldn’t surprise us. [19] Interpolations are later additions inserted into the Scriptures by unknown authors. 34-35 an interpolation, including some that must have been composed in the 3rd century, before almost all of the manuscripts we even now have. The first human was altered, with a side removed, or a chunk missing, after the operation (Gen 2:21-22 NRSV). Thank you, Marg, for your compilation of these commentaries, and your personal interpretation. This thread is archived. [23] Jesus ben Sirach, whose apocryphal work is included in the Septuagint (the ancient Greek version of the Old Testament), wrote that “a silent wife (or woman) is a gift from the Lord” (Sir. “Perhaps Paul quotes the faction’s injunction for silence from women in 14:34-35, and then he reprimands the faction (which includes men) with, “Or did the word of God originate with you? Is a Benevolent Patriarchy Good for God’s People? My name isn’t Lizzie, it’s Grace Virtually all other manuscripts put these two verses after 1 Cor 14:33. And the oldest codices include 1 Cor 14:34-35 where modern translations show it (the same as the KJV translators, as it turns out). John Mark’s mother’s house, Lydia’s house, Nympha’s house, Aquila and Priscilla’s house, and probably Stephanus’s and Phoebe’s houses, etc, were the home bases of house churches. Whenever believers got together for fellowship, for communion, for worship, for teaching, for mission strategising, or to listen to an apostle or their representative when they were in town, it was church. [I have written about 1 Timothy 2:12 here. We can be Jesus’ agents and alleviate some of the Fall’s consequences by promoting peace, harmony and equality between the sexes, and pain relief in childbirth. It has to do with the biblical text. The only hierarchy in Scripture was established by sinful men that Jesus later turned upside down in his gracious and respectful treatment of women, something many men today would do good to imitate. Corinthian women, with their freer mood inclined towards emancipation (comp. The apparent contradiction with 1 Corinthians 11:5 only exists when one views 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 as absolute statement ("… they are not permitted to speak;…") without any qualification. It was the first article I found that gave me courage! They were added some time later by a different hand. . One arguement I hear a lot is that 1 Corinthians 11 is not talking about the context of church meetings. They do also, need male rulegivers to keep them from becoming reckless livers. For you are all one in Christ Jesus.” 1 Corinthians 14:34-35. 11:5). I’m glad to have stumbled across your blog and look forward catching up on your other articles! Social status, plus gender, affected a person’s status. Paul is addressing two different issues: inappropriate hairstyles or head-covering on men and women who pray and prophecy in 1 Cor. I've been trying to wrap my head around the theory that 1 Cor. But I am repeating myself. Here is a short article about Paul and women: https://margmowczko.com/paul-and-women-in-a-nutshell/. In Genesis 3:16, God told Eve that her husband would rule her. ), It’s sad that you paint women in a negative light and with a broad brush. There is also no mention of a gender hierarchy in Genesis 1. (It is an accusative masculine plural adjective.) And they think that is what God wanted because that is the way they see it, but God does not see things the way a human man does, that’s why He said “My ways above yours, My words above yours, My thoughts above yours.”. Bible Women with Spiritual Authority. Furthermore, some commentaries suggest “woman of Lappidoth” in Judges 4:4 means that Deborah was from a town called Lappidoth. More on Deborah here and here. Anyway, I’m only 13, and haven’t done much study on this, at least not nearly as much as it looks like you have, but I am a devoted Christian and do want the Bible to be interpreted the correct way. There is nothing in this passage which hints that Paul is silencing women from teaching. Other passages of scripture in the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) also show that men had more authority than women. Galatians 3: 28 “There is no longer Jew or Gentile, slave or free, male and female. You can support my work for as little as $3 per month. However, Jesus came to deal with sin and the consequences of the Fall. In that setting, personal vows sometimes had to be overturned and personal wishes denied. It doesn’t. He admits the Bible shows there are exceptions to the idea that women need to be silent, etc. 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is sandwiched between verses (33,40) that forbid confusion and disorder. Its distigme (mark of a textual variant) at the end of v. 33 with no corresponding distigme at the end of v. 40 is evidence of a textual variant that was not the Western displacement was written prior to Codex Vaticanus. So basically for a women there are thousands of incredible ministries for you, but (ideally) not church leadership as men and women both have their strengths and weaknesses and God has designed men to fill this role. In this way, Paul’s teachings are quite consistent in 1 Corinthians 14 and 1 Timothy 2: in both cases he is concerned to preserve male leadership in the teaching and governing of the church.” (Chapter 47, page 939). He indicates that the women wanted, literally, “to learn.” I suggest some women were asking too many basic, nuisance questions. Rather, Genesis 1:26-28 tells us that humanity, male and female, have the same status, the same authorisation (or authority), and the same purpose. I believe the quotation/refutation approach is the most sound and has the least supposition – here’s a great breakdown if you haven’t seen it yet: https://www.cbeinternational.org/resources/article/priscilla-papers/1-corinthians-1433b-38-pauline-quotation-refutation-device. Again, there is a certain extent in which this line can be drawn. 1 Peter 3:1-2 Wives, in the same way submit yourselves to your own husbands so that, if any of them do not believe the word, they may be won over without words by the behavior of their wives, when they see the purity and reverence of your lives. Likewise, girls need role models of women doing excellent things. Sorry for my bad English language. LEAVEN. 14:26. Does a newly converted man become the pastor even though the woman is much more experienced and capable? It is not clear, however, whether the things in parts b and c of Genesis 3:16 are directly caused by God, or whether God’s statements reveal some consequences of sin. It’s just what the Bible says, it’s not that insecure men can’t handle being challenged by women. My second half got deleted. This is not what God wanted.) But Paul did not tell the Corinthian women who were prophesying and praying to be silent (1 Cor. Or are you the only ones [masculine gender] it has reached?” (1 Cor 14:36, NRSV, my italics and square brackets). 6:23). The Bible is broad enough that one can explain away any potentially problematic verse with a deluge of further verses. The theory that these words are a scribal interpolation into the Pauline text is one of four possible interpretations of these verses. Mary and the Women in Matthew’s Genealogy of Jesus, Don Carson and Tim Keller on “I Do Not Permit a Woman to Teach”. Marg has a BTh from the Australian College of Ministries and an MA in early Christian and Jewish studies from Macquarie University. I think I will rework this into an upcoming post. The question of sentence division: with what shall we connect the final clause of v. 33? Paul tells two other groups to be silent too. Enhance your school’s traditional and online education programs by easily integrating online courses developed from the scholars and textbooks you trust. The verse does not say it is a shame for women to speak in church IF x or IF y. I do think women should be able to voice their opinion and make announcements, and praise, and pray and all that good stuff, but I think when a woman has the responsibility of preaching And he does not exclude women from his teaching in 1 Cor. If you’re interested, I write more about this here: https://margmowczko.com/gender-hierarchy-creation-narrative-genesis-2/, I also believe Paul tells the women in the Corinthian church to be silent for a reason. This further supports that the variant being noted here is the interpolation of 1 Cor 14:34-35. While I do understand why 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 could refer to church meetings, the examples of Priscilla, Agabus, and 1 Corinthians 14:18 may mean it was not church meetings specifically. Jesus is not just the mediator between God and male humans, he is the mediator of women and girls too. (Interestingly, Abigail’s words to David constitute the longest speech of a woman recorded in the Old Testament, and her words have become Holy Writ.) I love your first paragraph. I get so many rude/negative comments after publishing a book about this topic. The interpolation hypothesis is perhaps most persuasively articulated by Philip Payne. In Numbers 30, a husband or father can annul a daughter’s or wife’s vow. Other, more reliable, texts use the present middle/passive imperative verb (3rd person plural). Hupotassō has a broader range of meanings other than just “submit” and “subordinate”. She believes that if we are in Christ we are part of the New Creation and part of a community where old social paradigms of hierarchies and caste systems have no place (2 Cor. Obviously women would like to creep at the edges of the bible to weasel their way into the heirachy, and this is exactly why He has told us that they are unfit for the purpose. Both men and women are God’s image-bearers. Also, sorry that didn’t have.an absolute finish. Apart from Jesus, God (the first person of the Trinity) and the Holy Spirit are not referred to in only masculine terms. If a pastor is trying to get a message through to his, (or her) congregation, a congregation made up of families, men, women, girls , and boys, will all be better able to relate to a male pastor. To say that the Samaritan woman was a “divorced prostitute” is a stretch. Osburn states that the text "does make sense if vv. Like your other ideas, it has no basis whatsoever in the biblical text. As you’ve stated, Numbers 30 is all about vows. Pros may mean “with” (friendly) or “against” (hostile) here (like it does in the four occurrences of this word Ephesians 6:12.) Your email address will not be published. At least the author is honest and openly states he does not believe women are equal with men. This forces anyone who is willing to defend this verse to either accept that a) women should not, in fact, be allowed to speak in church, or b) a divinely inspired text fails to adequately qualify the verse. That’s a good thing. I do believe girls are very powerful, but I also believe that there’s a reason God created Man before woman, and even more so created woman OUT of Man. I know for myself, it has encouraged me to dig deeper into understanding those tough passages, so I may be prepared to help to enlighten others. But I’m glad you’ve put the link here so others may find the article. Yet we see that women do suffer with sorrows and sighs in painful childbirth and because of men who rule them. 1:22). 11:5). I’m am so grateful when I hear comments like yours, Caroline. Her area of interest is the mutuality (equality) of men and women in Christian ministry and marriage. However, those verses are relocated to the end of the chapter in Codex Bezae (or “Codex D”), which contains many additions to … Marg Mowczko is an Australian theologian and writer. I’ll aim to make a pdf later tomorrow and add a link to it at the bottom of the article. These words are also a part of the Christian canon, and are attributed to Paul as well. So Paul tells them to keep their questions for home where they can ask their more educated husbands (1 Cor. (In honour-shame societies, such as in Roman Corinth, honour was especially the province of men, and a woman’s behaviour could negatively affect his honour and bring disgrace.). Sorry about that I’m just not a very technical girl, and don’t know what personal information ends up out there out there, and I can’t get back. Genesis 3:16c “Your desire will be for your husband and he will rule you.”. Also, Agabus in Acts 21:10-12 did not prophesy in church, but to Paul. However, almost all interpreters and commentators believe Gen 3:16a refers to pain and effort in labour rather than just sorrow over one’s children. They are not allowed to speak, but must be in submission, as the law says. The society of the ancient Israelites was frequently threatened by violence and hardships. [My article on Submission here. Very thorough job with the truth, thank you! But even he was led into sin by his foreign wives. ~ Instead he emptied himself by assuming the form of a servant, taking on the likeness of humanity. The first and last verses in 1 Corinthians 14:26-40 CSB explain that context of this passage is disorderly and unedifying speech. Hannah in 1 Samuel 1:10-11) and even become Nazarites (Numb. I really appreciate how carefully you have done your research and how clearly you have presented your information. For free downloads of the articles cited above and a description of my new book, Man and Woman, One in Christ: An Exegetical and Theological Study of Paul's Letters, that argues in detail on pages 217-67 from both external and internal, that 1 Cor 14:34-35 is an interpolation, see www.linguistsoftware.com/payneessays.htm. There is no comparable instance of any other manuscript of any of Paul's letters of a scribe rearranging Paul's argument with a significant block of text in this way. For [Paul] was not in the habit of calling any houses Churches, save where there was much piety, and much fear of God deeply rooted in them. I was reading through this thread, and I was wondering if maybe Paul could be correct about 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 not requiring a church context. I agree that boys need male role models. Hi Frederica, I’ve written about Nympha(s) and her ministry, as well as the different renderings of the pronoun (her/his/their) in Greek texts and in English translations of Col. 4:15, here: There also must be a reason God is depicted in male terms, a reason God tells wives to submit to their husbands (and not vice versa) and so on and so forth. All manuscripts of the Western Text-Type put these two verses after 1 Cor 14:40. Great work!! Love your articles 🙂 For God is not a God of confusion but of peace. Thanks for the article, Marg. (The house church setting of the early church is very different from the setting of most churches today. 1 Corinthians 11 is about appropriate behaviour during worship in church meetings. 4:2-3) and the Chosen Lady (2 John 1, 5). Also, it is not uncommon in ancient Greek to refer to a subgroup (e.g., rowdy women in a church gathering) within another group (e.g., women in a church meeting) without including a word that means “some.” For example, there is no Greek word for “some” in Matthew 28:17c. They are “always protecting” by protecting their husbands honor and reputation. 1. If you have any questions, please review our. Truthfully, grace frees us from this type of thinking because it frees us from the condemnation of the law. In Proverbs, wisdom is even portrayed as a woman! Please check errors and resubmit. It’s simply incorrect to say that God is masculine. God is shaking his head at Paul. Lappid can also refer to lightning flashes. Philip’s daughters (Acts 21:9), Phoebe (Rom. Great article – this verse came up with a vising speaker who suggested it was a scribal note and should be removed altogether! 157. beyond this by further requesting-again tacitly-that Philemon release Onesimus, his new brother in Christ, from slavery. . share. We have seen that the evidence for the existence of hypothetical manuscripts lacking 1 Cor 14:34–35 is weak. https://margmowczko.com/equality-and-gender-issues/portrayal-of-women-and-biblical-inspiration/. And when he had come as a human he humbled himself by becoming obedient … Close. (My weekend was busier than expected. Additionally, the fact the Priscilla and Aquila took Apollos to their home to explain baptism could maybe mean that a woman could prophesy in her home to a specific person if she had a message for them, and there would still be concern for how she looks while doing it since she would be with another person. Genesis 3:16a And [God] said to the woman, “I will greatly multiply your sorrows/pains and your sighs/groans . Archived. Thank you for sharing. ” Apostrophē used in Gen 3:16c in the LXX may also be translated as “a turning away from”. I have no argument with submission. I read 1 Cor 14:34-35 as a quote from Corinth that is repudiated in v.36. There is no mention of a gender hierarchy in Genesis 2. We can turn back to God and be reconciled with him (Acts 3:26). Reply. If Abigail did despise her husband it was because he was a brutish headstrong fool, as the text and his name Nabal indicates (1 Sam. It is very helpful. The culture of ancient Israel was patriarchal. Philip B. Payne, "MS. 88 as Evidence for a Text Without 1 Cor 14.34-5," NTS 44 (1998) 152-58, includes a full page photograph of this passage in MS 88 and a close-up photograph showing its details. FIRST CORINTHIANS. If boys and girls alike need male role models in their lives to help them become good men and women, then it only makes sense that God should be depicted in male terms. 5:17; Gal. And yet, in the whole Greek New Testament Jesus is referred to as an anēr (an adult male human) only twice; he is most commonly referred to as anthrōpos (a human being). I will throw in my 2 cents and say Grudem’s position is the most accurate, what isn’t mentioned in the article and that he states in his systematic theology book which is a great read btw, is that Numbers 30:16 was also used to show that this is God’s design. 14:34 and even 1 Tim 2:12] as a rule made with special reference to time and circumstances, and obviously admitting of exceptions in both dispensations (Judges 4:4; 2 Kings 22:14; Nehemiah 6:14; Luke 2:36; Acts 2:17; Acts 21:9).” 92% Upvoted. I couldn’t possibly be a muslim and pretend to find reverence in someone I couldn’t believe in. He can not be an it. <3, Wow!!! Thank you for the publication! Since surviving manuscripts preserve textual variants in the vast majority of the original ink color distigme locations in Codex Vaticanus, these distigmai provide a statistical basis for concluding that the majority of the significant variants available to the scribe of Vaticanus have survived in extant manuscripts. I suggest that this means that most women still want (desire) to marry, despite the loss of harmony, affinity and equality between the sexes, despite the fact that a consequence of the Fall is that men will rule their wives. Lastly, the fact that the command is repeated shows it is important. This text, which is clearly an interpolation into Paul’s original letter, has been used in Church tradition to exclude women from ministries in the Church. I found your article researching it afterwards to try and restore biblical authority!! I hope others who find your article would be encouraged that God views men and women of equal importance but understands that we contribute in different ways (just like the gifts of the Spirit). Keep up the great work! For they are not permitted to speak. Preager University is a great website! 25:3, 25). ( Obama’s quote was confirmed by an expirement led by Dr. Alvin Pouassaint )The reason behind boys being the center of attention in the sense of which gender needs more attention because of wild impulses is, out of all crimes committed in the entire world, an overwhelming amount are committed by males. I can’t do it. Both men and women are children of God; we are brothers and sisters with Jesus as our older brother. (This is what the men wanted. Is 1 Corinthians 14:34–35 an interpolation? These myths exist only within the corrupted minds of those who choose to believe lies instead of truth. You may unsubscribe from these email communications at any time. In fact, if you skip over verses 33b-35, and go straight from verse 33a to verse 36, the passage flows and makes good sense. The reason God isn’t depicted ( I say depicted, and probably shouldn’t be putting this in parenthesis because it’s so important, GOD IS GENDERLESS. I am not one of these people. Yes, women can be influential. Even with the uncertainty in the passage like you have pointed out, I find it helpful for instruction regardless. Numbers 30 does not say “women are not permitted to speak” or “women are to subject themselves” as it does in 1 Corinthians 14:34. I’m not saying you don’t agree with the more common gender depiction of Christ, I’m simply saying that if, and sense, it makes sense to explain God in male terms, wouldn’t it also make sense to have male role models in the church? I’ll edit my sentence in the article to make it clearer that I’m referring to Greek grammar. 35 If they will learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home, for it is a shame for women to speak in the church. Continue this work. Women and Men in the Church at Corinth: Interpretive Puzzles in 1 Corinthians 14:34-35. Only 1 Cor 4: 6 and 1 Cor 14: 34–35 are accepted as post‐Pauline additions. In this case, the “law says” is a clue that law refers to the so-called Oral Torah of the Pharisees. (Wilson 1991:172), [29] Other New Testament women who were possibly house church leaders include Euodia and Syntyche (Phil. 14:34-35 may seem clear to you, but Craig Keener, Ben Witherington, Gordon D. Fee, Philip Payne, Bruce Metzger, Richard Kroeger, Jim Reiher – men I have quoted in this article – would disagree with your interpretation. Jesus became our saviour and mediator, and role model, primarily because he became human, not because he became a male human. I didn’t have any pain in my first labour, and both labours – I have two sons – were shortish (6 1/2 and 4 hours) with no ill effects at all. Additionally, I find it difficult to rationalize the idea explicit order that women must rely on their husband’s explanation at home “if they will learn anything.” This hardly seems like a message that an omniscient being would want to put in the sacred text. They treated them as intelligent and resourceful human beings. Thanks….. However, although interpolation of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is a possibility, the fact that these verses appear in every manuscript, and the Western manuscripts which place them in a different position are considered less reliable, has made it impossible so far to demonstrate interpolation on … The paper I will read at the ETS Annual Meeting at 8:30 AM, Thursday Nov. 19 in the Waterbury Ballroom on the 2nd floor of the Sheraton will establish with conclusive statistical evidence that the distigmai in Codex Vaticanus are marks of textual variants. From the quote by J.W. I adore you Jesus. This understanding of the passage depends on our view of the gift of prophesy in the New testament age, namely, that prophesy involves not authoritative bible teaching, and not speaking words of God which are equal to Scripture, but rather reporting something which God spontaneously brings to mind. I don’t know how to post links, again, not a very technical girl. I’m personally not convinced 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is an interpolation, but I do understand why others think it is a possibility. 1 Cor. I think Paul is weeping at how he’s been misunderstood. https://margmowczko.com/category/equality-and-gender-issues/1-corinthians-11-2-16/, https://margmowczko.com/equality-and-gender-issues/portrayal-of-women-and-biblical-inspiration/, http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2015/october/was-samaritan-woman-really-adulteress.html, https://www.cbeinternational.org/resources/article/priscilla-papers/1-corinthians-1433b-38-pauline-quotation-refutation-device, https://margmowczko.com/paul-james-jesus-hell-gehenna/, https://margmowczko.com/eternal-torment-or-death/, https://margmowczko.com/paul-and-women-in-a-nutshell/, https://margmowczko.com/1-corinthians-1434-35-in-a-nutshell/, https://margmowczko.com/gender-roles-gendered-activities-in-the-old-testament/, https://margmowczko.com/gender-hierarchy-creation-narrative-genesis-2/, https://margmowczko.com/is-god-male-or-masculine/, https://margmowczko.com/nympha-house-church-colossians-415/, https://margmowczko.com/man-woman-image-glory-god-1-corinthians-11-7/. 11:5)? Numbers 30 doesn’t even say that women should not to make vows. People were not usually speaking in tongues or prophesying on their own, outside of the context of church. The Witch of Endor, the Dead Prophet, the Doomed King, King Lemuel’s Mother: The Other Proverbs 31 Woman. I think most of the negative comments are given by people who don’t actually understand what egalitarians believe, and they don’t realise that Christian egalitarianism, or mutuality, has a sound biblical basis. Not all women were culturally inferior, however,. Different translations of 1 Corinthians 14:36 can be compared here. I was a Muslim. for they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as the law also says. Let your women, &c. — The last clause of the preceding verse is by some critics, and among the rest Bishop Pearce, joined with this, so as to make this sense; as in all the churches of the saints, let your women keep silence in the churches, namely, of Achaia. We know it is highly unlikely since no scribe of any surviving manuscript (and there are thousands) of any of Paul's letters ever did anything like this in any other passage of Paul's letters.

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